The DSA issue a syllabus that they expect learners to complete.  I have set out below my interpretation of that and a description of the things I will teach.  I will never expect my pupil to do anything I have not taught. 
Controls An explanation of the major controls of the car
Moving off/stopping Use of the controls and the Mirror-Signal-Manoeuvre routine
Left Turn Introduction to Mirror-Signal-Position-Speed-Look.
Right Turn Use of MSPSL to turn across the path of oncoming traffic
T-Junctions Turning Left & Right at the end of a Road. Give way & Stop junctions
Progress & Hesitancy Using an appropriate speed and not holding up other road users.
Mirrors & Signals Effective use of Mirrors together with appropriate and timely signals
Meeting oncoming traffic What to do when there is not room for you and the oncoming traffic due to width restrictions
Clearance to others Ensuring you maintain adequate clearance to other road users and parked vehicles.
Roundabouts How to deal with roundabouts.
Crossroads The special issues associated with crossroads.
Crossing the path of other road users. Special attention when emerging from junctions and turning across the path of oncoming traffic.
Traffic Lights Understanding traffic light sequences and filter lights.
Pedestrian Crossings Dealing with all type of pedestrian crossings.
Dual Carriageways Use of Dual Carriageways and lane discipline.
Slip Roads Accessing and leaving Dual Carriageways.
Overtaking Overtaking on Single & Dual carriageways.
Emergency Stop How to control the car under Emergency Braking.
Reverse Left Reversing around a left hand corner.
Turn in the Road Turn the car in the road.
Parking Bay Reversing into a parking bay.
Parallel Parking Reversing into a space between two parked cars.
Car Safety How to ensure your car is safe and legal to use at all times.
More details of what is expected of you on a Driving Test is available here.